Pax Romana: War, Peace and Conquest

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wyrostek robaczkowy
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appendix
zakwaterować
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billet
A brutal military terror in which thousands died was followed up by billeting the soldiers on the better-off citizens of the provincial capitals, while their sovereign courts were exiled to remote small towns.
zagubiony, zablakany
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astray
Hannibal's army was once led astray by confusion over the pronunciation of a place name.
potworność, okropność
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atrocity
They were also enraged by the sights and stories of the atrocities committed by the rebels.
cyna
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tin
Goods also went the other way, especially metal ores, including the tin vital for making bronze, as well as large number of slaves.
wszechobecny
Smartfony stały się wszechobecne w ciągu ostatnich pięciu lat.
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ubiquitous
Smartphones have become ubiquitous in the last five years.
bagno, trzesawisko, moczary, torfowiska
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bog
Most bog finds a date to the third century AD.
Spieprzaj!, Odwal sie
na "b"
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Bog off!
zakłucenie, awantura, anomalie
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disturbance
Once again it is worth repeating that there is no evidence for any rebellion or serious disturbance in lowland Britain after Boudicca.
uniewinnic, usprawiedliwic
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exonerate
This does not in any way exonerate the Romans from their own acts of violence.
godzić, pojednać, pogodzić
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to reconcile
it is not necessary to reconcile the cost accounts to the financial accounts
całkowitość, kompletność, pełnia
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completeness
Qualifying the completeness of the Pax Romana should not make us forget just what a remarkable achievement it was.
czynić niezbednym, wymagać, stwarzać potrzebe
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to necessitate
In some parts of the provinces, usually in mountainous or other inaccessible countries, it was always a problem, often necessitating a permanent military presence.
towar, wyroby
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wares
Red Sea ports, travellers were charged during their journey and again on arrival at the port, before being permitted to embark with their wares.
nieprzepuszczalny, niedostepny, nieprzemakalny
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impermeable
The empire's frontiers were never intended to be impermeable fortified lines.
wysiedlać, eksmitować
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to evict
As a result, they began to settle on land that was east of the river but previously kept clear b the Roman army and were forcibly evicted.
oczerniać, obmawiać
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to vilify
Dismissing them as bandits and criminals rather than formal enemies helped to vilify them.
spichlerz, magazyn zbożowy, silos
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granary
Tacitus praised his father-in-law Agricola for skill in choosing the sites of forts and providing them with well-stocked granaries.
uwiązany, spetać
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tethered
Tethering is a feature that lets your mobile phone share its wireless data connection with your computer.
sztywnieć, imacniać, usztywniać
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stiffen
Tacitus claimed that the appalling punishment stiffened the morale of the rest of the army.
ukradkowy, potajemny, tajny
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clandestine
But the other side of the story is of course, perhaps it is possible they were on some clandestine mission.
koncert, zgoda, porozumienie
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concert
It was very rare even for a few neighbours to act in concert.
przeżyć, przetrwać
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outlive
The power of such warlords was precarious and rarely outlived them.
niebezpieczny, ryzykowny, niepewny
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precarious
The power of such warlords was precarious and rarely outlived them.
następny, późniejszy
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subsequent
Then came Crassus' unprovoked attack, his subsequent defeat at Carrhae.
gardzić, pogardzać, lekceważyc
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despise
Indulge the soldiers and despise everyone else
motłoch, pospólstwo, mieszać
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rabble
He carried corruption to such a pitch that in the language of the rabble he was known...
kadencja, okres urzedowania, okres posiadania
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tenure
Since the tenure of each magistracy was brief.
zawieszenie broni rozejm
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truce
They never have a truce from training.
kwatery, mieszkania, sfery, krąg,
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quarters
Possessing a short-range missile capability and very dangerous at close quarters.
wyrzuty sumienia, wątpliwości, mdłości
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qualm
He had no qualms about having the accused flogged and humiliated while stating that he did not find evidence for a capital charge.
trudzić się, męczyć się
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to toil
Unless condemned for a serious crime, the free population was not compelled to perform some of the most unpleasant work, such as toiling in the mines.
wybierać, zajmować miejsce
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to supplant
supplanting established institutions
złe prowadzenie sie, przewinienie
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misconduct
The decision illustrates a fairly consistent approach by the Court of Appeal in cases where police officers from a particular squad or force have been proved to have misconducted themselves.
przymilny, lizusowski
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ingratiating
His wife Placina appeared at reviews, and was accused of ingratiating herself with the army.
współudzial, zamieszany
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complicit
made it harder for crimes to escape notice, unless all of these could be made complicit
obnosić sie
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to sport
Hadrian was the first to sport a beard, a neater version of the full beads of Greek philosophers.
choroba, słabość, niemoc
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infirmity
Augustus` image remained eternally youthful, while Claduis` status concealed his infirmity.
zarządzić, zadekretować
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to decree
Roman law decreed the execution of an entire household when even one killed or tried to kill his master.
rzepa
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turnip
The future emperor Vespasian was pelted with turnips by an angry crowd.
obrzucać, zasypywać
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to pelt
The future emperor Vespasian was pelted with turnips by an angry crowd.

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